LITERATURE REVIEW ABOUT THE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT
The literature is reviewed according to the study objectives that included types of corporal punishment used on changing juvenile behaviour, the effects of corporal punishment toward changing juvenile delinquent behavior and the psychosocial influences of inputs on behavior modification of juvenile delinquents.
2.2 TYPES OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT USED ON CHANGING JUVENILE BEHAVIOUR
Many studies have been done to identify the types of corporal punishment used on changing juvenile behaviour
Corporal punishment may be divided into three main types which are parental or domestic corporal punishment occur within the family typically when children punished by parents or guardians, school corporal punishment operated within schools, when students are punished by teachers or school administrators, or, in the past, apprentices by master craftsmen as well as judicial corporal punishment as part of a criminal sentence ordered by a court of law. Closely related is prison corporal punishment, ordered either directly by the prison authorities or by a visiting court. Corporal punishment is also still allowed in some military settings, and banned in others .
.The results of several studies (Scarr,1995; Flynn,1996; Ramsburg,1997) indicate that Corporal punishment or spanking is usually considered as a primary discipline method in most countries, including the USA. Corporal punishment given to children by parents in their homes is called domestic punishment. It is generally referred to as spanking, whipping, smacking as well as slapping. It is one of the most common ways of disciplining a child .
In Kenya, the most common method of corporal punishment involves teachers striking students with a “cane”: generally an uneven wooden stick of two to three feet in length, with a diameter of approximately three-fourths of an inch. Some teachers also punish students by flogging them with whips made of rubber (from strips of old car tires), with heavier canes, or simply by slapping, kicking, or pinching. For the most part, boys are hit on the backside, while girls are hit on the palm of the hand. At times, however, children are beaten on other parts of the body: on the back, the arms, the legs, the soles of the feet, and sometimes even the face and head. Children are generally forced to kneel down (occasionally to lie down) in the front of the classroom before being caned or beaten in front of other students. At other times, teachers simply cane children on the spot, as they sit in their chairs.
According to Warioba (2012), states the types of corporal punishment provided to pupils in Tanzania are spanking, slapping, grabbing, shoving and hitting with objects.
Forms of discipline such as shaking children (especially infants) and beating children with implements are often classified as being physically abusive, but milder forms of discipline such as spanking or slapping also have been questioned because they can result in both physical injuries and negative psychosocial outcome (Gershoff, 2002).
Therefore forms of corporal punishment seen in many studies are spanking, slapping with a bare hand; hitting or slapping on the hand, arm or leg shaking, hitting with an object, grabbing and shoving.
2.3 EFFECTS OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT TOWARD CHANGING JUVENILE DELIQUENT BEHAVIOUR
The impacts of corporal punishment to children at schools are both academically, socially, emotionally, psychologically and physically. Some children have been injured and killed with their teachers because of heavy punishment ( Warioba, 2012).
Robinson et al (2005) question the effectiveness of corporal punishment and underline the side effects of corporal punishment such as running away, fear of teacher and parent, feelings of helplessness, humiliation, aggression and destruction at home and at school, abuse and criminal activities. Gershoff (2002) also attributes corporal punishment to increased aggression and lower levels of moral internalization and mental health and adds that adults who were corporally punished when children are more likely to be criminals, be violent with their sexual partner, and spank their own children. The Psychiatric News (as cited in Cryan, 1995) states that the psychological effects may be as harmful as the physical effects are.
Ramsburg (1997) notes that spanking, used as a primary discipline method, may have some potentially harmful effects such as increasing the chances of misbehavior. Punitive behavior management methods have been shown to be ineffective and in some cases harmful to students (Cameron, 2006). Verbal reprimands, persistent nagging of students about their behaviors may be effective in the short run but they do not work and students suffer from violence in the long run (Hyman and Perone, 1998), as it would cost more (Clark, 2004), cause aggression and violence (Straus, 1991).
Furthermore, the use of corporal punishment on treating juvenile delinquent can have important social consequences. In Jamaica, Smith and Mosby (2003) claimed ???that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of the island nation???, and this may also be the case in The Tanzania. Adeoye (2002), states that Ocular injuries resulting from assaults inflicted during administration of corporal punishment in schools and at home have been reported in previous studies. It has been demonstrated that corporal punishment is being used extensively to discipline erring children both in schools and at home and this has been responsible for severe forms of ocular injuries on several occasions.
Although many researches shows that corporal punishment plays a great role toward changing the juvenile delinquents behaviour but American psychologist known Maurer (1974), shows that punishment is credited with causing juvenile delinquency, hyperactivity, anti-social aggression, vandalism, minimal brain damage, and homicide.
Human Rights Watch(1999),n Reported that Children occasionally die as a result of corporal punishment, and several such deaths have been reported in the Kenyan press over the past two years. It was impossible, however, to get accurate statistics on such serious incidents: many severe beatings are never reported to government authorities or journalists, as children and parents fear retaliation from teachers and head teachers. Similarly, poor police and court record-keeping make it difficult to track down cases that are reported, as police records may simply describe a severe incident of corporal punishment as an assault or murder, without noting that it occurred in school.
Using shaming penalties to punish juveniles is not only ineffective but can lead to further delinquency, which will have a negative impact on already troubled juveniles, and will contribute to further erosion of the confidentiality of the system (Braudway,2004).
2.4 PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCE OF INPUTS ON BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS
Psychology of the society is very crucial for dealing with children in behaviour modification. It turn out into Social workers who will provide counseling, psychosocial support, children behaviors assessments and deal with all disciplinary matters for social well being and academic performance of juvenile at school and home. People around a child have large contribution toward behaviour modification.
When parent-adolescent relationship is negative, adolescents are less likely to internalize parental values and norms. They may punish their parents with negative behaviors (Schickedanz et al., 2001). Adolescent with critical and rejecting parents may develop a negative identity; engage in behaviors that oppose to their parents??™ values and norms (Schickedanz et al., 2001). However in a warm and positive parent-adolescent relationship, adolescents are more interested to communicate with their parents and share with them about their daily activities.
Children from divorce families were noted to be more delinquent than those from intact families. The use of corporal punishment on treating juvenile delinquents ranges across countries. For instance in Sweden the use of corporal punishment is illegal, while in Kenya, the use of corporal punishment is widely accepted and used, as is the case in much of sub-Saharan Africa like Tanzania (Monyooe,1996).
According to Bronfebrenner (Lewis et. Al,2000) the mesosystem refers to the rules which give people the roles they should play as they interact in their immediate setting in which a person(child) is a direct participant. In the mesosystem, a child can be affected directly by the role played by the family members, peers, neighbors and teachers at school as they provide the child??™s physiological and psychological needs. Similarly the exosystem encompasses major societal institution that directly affects adults in their social networks. As such the exosystem affects children and young persons indirectly. Thus the analysis of life experience of children and young person within the context of mesosystem and exosystem was important to determine the effectiveness various methods toward treating juvenile delinquents.
Despite the fact that among of the duty of teacher is to reshape children??™s behaviors at schools the power given goes beyond their limits given with the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training under the National education corporal punishment regulation act of 1979. Teachers are taught psychology at the college during studies now does their psychology directs them to use corporal punishment for behavioral modification to children or disciplinary action Challenges facing teachers such as poor working environment, poor motivation, heavy workload and poor education policies are among of the reasons which cause them to violate their ethics and principles. (Warioba, 2012).
Although many studies has been done on the effectiveness of corporal punishment toward changing delinquent behaviour nearly all have examined punitive parenting and teaching result in juvenile delinquent behaviour modification By comparison, relatively little is known about permissive parenting and teaching toward juvenile behaviour modification.